MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday
June 17, 2019June 18, 2019June 19, 2019June 20, 2019June 21, 2019
09:00-10:301.      Introduction5. Affective Neuroscience9. Oxytocin & Affiliation13. Hallucinations/Theory of Mind17. Field Methods
KirmayerGendronBartz LuhrmannSnodgrass
11:00-12:302. Social Context in Neuroscience6. . Affective Neuroscience10. Social Affective Neuroscience14. Culture and Psychosis18. Field Methods
GoldGendronArmony LuhrmannKohrt
12:30-14:00LunchLunchLunchLunchLunch
14:00-15:303. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience7 Stress & the Brain11. Social Networks15. Hypnosis & Suggestion19. Social & Cultural Neurocience in Psychiatric Training
ChoudhuryLupienParkinson RazKirmayer, Gómez-Carrillo, Lewis-Fernandez, Kohrt
15:30-17:004. The Bayesian Brain8. Social Adversity12. Social Networks16. Meditation20. Discussion of Student Projects
Ramstead LupienParkinsonLifshitz

MONDAY, JUNE 17, 2019



Laurence Kirmayer, MD, FRCPC, FCAHS, FRSC

Time: Monday, June 17, 9:00–10:30 am

Title: Introduction to Social and Cultural Neuroscience

Abstract: Social and cultural neuroscience has provided new insights into the mechanisms and meanings of human cognition and adaptation. This introduction will outline the workshop and consider the conceptual and methodological challenges of building bridges between the social sciences and neurosciences.  Topics will include: the relevance of social science for neuroscience; implications of 4-E cognitive science for social and cultural neuroscience; ecosocial approaches to studying the brain in health and illness; and strategies for integrating ethnographic methods and neuroscience in global mental health.

Biographical Note: Laurence J. Kirmayer, MD, FRCPC, FCAHS, FRSC is James McGill Professor and Director, Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and Director of the McGill Global Mental Health Program. He is Editor-in-Chief of Transcultural Psychiatry, and Director of the Culture & Mental Health Research Unit at the Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, where he conducts research on culturally responsive mental health services, the mental health of Indigenous peoples, and the anthropology of psychiatry. He founded and directs the annual Summer Program and Advanced Study Institute in Cultural Psychiatry at McGill. He co-edited the volumes, Understanding Trauma: Integrating Biological, Clinical, and Cultural Perspectives (Cambridge University Press), Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada (University of British Columbia Press), Cultural Consultation: Encountering the Other in Mental Health Care (Springer), DSM-5 Handbook for the Cultural Formulation Interview (APPI), and Re-Visioning Psychiatry: Cultural Phenomenology, Critical Neuroscience and Global Mental Health (Cambridge). He is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences and of the Royal Society of Canada (Academy of Social Sciences).

Readings (* = required)

Choudhury, S., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2009). Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: Prospects for cultural psychiatry. Progress in Brain Research178, 263-283.

Kirmayer, L. J. (2012). The future of critical neuroscience. In: S. Choudhury & J. Slaby (Eds.) Critical Neuroscience. A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience (pp. 367-383) Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kirmayer, L. J., & Crafa, D. (2014). What kind of science for psychiatry?. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience8, 435.

*Seligman, R., Choudhury, S., & Kirmayer, L. J. (2015). Locating culture in the brain and in the world: from social categories to the ecology of mind. In: Chiao, J. Y., Li, S. C., & Seligman, R. (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Cultural Neuroscience (pp. 3-20). Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Ian Gold, PhD

Time: Monday, June 17, 11:00–12:30 pm

Title: Social Context in Neuroscience: The Socially Situated Brain

Abstract: Many neuroscientists believe that explanations of mental life will eventually be provided in exclusively neural terms. Even in the domain of social neuroscience—where interactions among minds are the primary phenomena to be explained—it is widely assumed that theories will ultimately be couched in terms the dynamics of neurons, neural circuits, and brain function. In this lecture we’ll consider some reasons for scepticism about this assumption. We will focus, in particular, on the idea that the brain operates in a context, especially of other people, and that context may be ineliminable if we hope to understand what the brain is doing. We will explore this “situatedness” of the brain and its implications for the future of social neuroscientific theory.

Biographical Note: Ian Gold, PhD is Associate Professor of Philosophy & Psychiatry at McGill University in Montreal. He completed a doctorate in Philosophy at Princeton University and did postdoctoral training at the Australian National University in Canberra. From 2000 to 2006, he was on the faculty of the School of Philosophy & Bioethics at Monash University in Melbourne and came to McGill in 2006. His research focuses on the study of delusions, social neuroscience, and on reductionism in psychiatry and neuroscience. He is the author of research articles in journals including:Behavioral and Brain SciencesMind and Language;Consciousness and CognitionCanadian Journal of Psychiatry;World PsychiatryTranscultural PsychiatryPhilosophyPsychiatry, & Psychology; and Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. A book on the theory of delusions, Suspicious Minds (Free Press), co-written with his brother Joel Gold, appeared in the summer of 2014.

Readings (* = required)

*Boydell J, McKenzie K. 2008. Society, place and space. In Society and Psychosis,C Morgan, McKenzie K, Fearon P (eds) 77–94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clark A, Chalmers D. 1998. The extended mind. Analysis 58:7–19.

Darley J, Batson C. 1973. “From Jerusalem to Jericho”: A study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology27:100–8.

*Gold I. 2009. Reduction in psychiatry. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54:506–12.

Gold I, Stoljar D. 1999. A neuron doctrine in the philosophy of neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences22:809–30.

*Hutchins E. 1995. How a cockpit remembers its speeds. Cognitive Science 19:265–88.



Suparna Choudhury, PhD (presenter); Budhachandra Khundrakpam, PhD (co-author)

Time: Monday, June 17, 2:00–3:30 pm

Title: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Adolescence as a Sensitive Period for the Impact of Socioeconomic Status on the Developing Brain

Abstract:

Biographical Notes:

Suparna Choudhury, PhD is an Assistant Professor at the Division of Social & Transcultural Psychiatry, McGill University, Co-director of the Culture, Mind, and Brain Program, McGill University, and an Investigator at the Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research. She did her doctoral research in cognitive neuroscience at University College London, postdoctoral research in transcultural psychiatry at McGill and most recently directed an interdisciplinary research program on critical neuroscience and the developing brain at the Max Planck Institute for History of Science in Berlin. Her current work investigates the production and dissemination of biomedical knowledge – in particular cognitive neuroscience – that shapes the ways in which researchers, clinicians, patients and laypeople understand themselves, their mental health and their illness experiences.

Budhachandra Khundrakpam, PhD: I am a Research Associate at the Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University. The transition from childhood to adolescence is critical for cognitive development and a disruption in this process is implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism, ADHD and Schizophrenia. Using multi-modal brain imaging and connectivity analysis, I investigate normal brain development, and how deviations from the normal baseline correspond to behavioral and psychiatric vulnerability.

Readings (* = required)

*Chan MY, Na J, Agres PF, Savalia NK, Park DC, Wig GS. 2018. Socioeconomic status moderates age-related differences in the brain’s functional network organization and anatomy across the adult lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 201714021.

*Farah MJ. 2017. The Neuroscience of Socioeconomic Status: Correlates, Causes, and Consequences. Neuron. 96:56–71.

Noble KG, Houston SM, Brito NH, Bartsch H, Kan E, Kuperman JM, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiger O, Schork NJ, Murray SS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kennedy DN, Van Zijl P, Mostofsky S, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Dale AM, Jernigan TL, Sowell ER. 2015. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents. Nat Neurosci. 18:773–778.

*Rosen ML, Sheridan MA, Sambrook KA, Meltzoff AN, McLaughlin KA. 2018. Socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement: A multi-modal investigation of neural mechanisms in children and adolescents. Neuroimage. 173:298–310.



Maxwell Ramstead, PhD candidate

Time: Monday, June 17, 3:30–5:00 pm

Title: The Bayesian Brain

Abstract: Contemporary approaches to cognition in computational neuroscience cast the brain as prediction machine. On this view, the brain is understood as engaging in a process of inference, through which it determines the causes of its sensations and selects the most appropriate action. According to the Bayesian brain perspective, the signals processed by the brain are predictions and prediction errors, which measure the difference between the way the world was expected to be sensed (i.e., predictions) and the way it was sensed to be. The expectations of the brain are modelled as Bayesian prior beliefs or probabilities, which are combined with prediction errors to refine an estimation of what is going on; i.e., a posterior belief, an estimate of what should be the case, given what I knew before observing anything and what I sense now. The Bayesian brain is hierarchically structured, with each layer providing contextualizing information (i.e., predictions based on Bayesian prior beliefs) to the dynamics at the layer below; and with each layer, reciprocally, sending prediction errors to the layer above. We will examine the Bayesian brain in light of social and cultural neuroscience. We will see that the Bayesian brain provides a framework to understand the brain as an organ of context, that is, as the organ responsible for context-sensitive decision making and action selection – which dovetails with findings from social and cultural neuroscience. We thus set up the following discussion on cultural affordances, which applies this model to cultural cognition and interaction in human beings.

Biographical Note: I am a Ph.D. candidate at McGill University, affiliated with the Department of Philosophy and the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry at McGill and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging of University College London. I have completed my B.A. in Philosophy at Université de Montréal and my M.A. in Philosophy (specialized in Cognitive Science) at Université du Québec à Montréal. My research explores active inference and multiscale explanation in psychiatry, cognitive sciences, and computational neurosciences. I am grateful that my Ph.D. research project, entitled Have We Lost Our Minds?, is supported by the Healthy Brains for Healthy Lives initiative at McGill.

Readings (* = required)

*Chan MY, Na J, Agres PF, Savalia NK, Park DC, Wig GS. 2018. Socioeconomic status moderates age-related differences in the brain’s functional network organization and anatomy across the adult lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 201714021.

*Farah MJ. 2017. The Neuroscience of Socioeconomic Status: Correlates, Causes, and Consequences. Neuron. 96:56–71.

Noble KG, Houston SM, Brito NH, Bartsch H, Kan E, Kuperman JM, Akshoomoff N, Amaral DG, Bloss CS, Libiger O, Schork NJ, Murray SS, Casey BJ, Chang L, Ernst TM, Frazier JA, Gruen JR, Kennedy DN, Van Zijl P, Mostofsky S, Kaufmann WE, Kenet T, Dale AM, Jernigan TL, Sowell ER. 2015. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents. Nat Neurosci. 18:773–778.

*Rosen ML, Sheridan MA, Sambrook KA, Meltzoff AN, McLaughlin KA. 2018. Socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement: A multi-modal investigation of neural mechanisms in children and adolescents. Neuroimage. 173:298–310.

TUESDAY, JUNE 18, 2019



Maria Gendron, PhD (presenter); Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD (co-author)

Time: Tuesday, June 18, 9:00–10:30 am, 11:00 am–12:30 pm

Title: Affective Neuroscience

Abstract: Affective phenomena have traditionally been considered in a separate sphere from cognitive phenomena such as memory, perception, and decision making. This legacy of partitioning the brain into “emotional” circuits that are separate from “cognitive” regions is being actively dismantled with emerging neuroscience research on the network structure and function of the brain. This research has led to several key insights. First, affective phenomena are pervasive due to the core biological task of predictively regulating the body (allostasis) and representing the sensory consequences of that bodily regulation (interoception). Emerging research suggests that the experience of affective qualities (pleasure, displeasure) is a low-dimensional representation of these processes in consciousness. Second, emotional experiences and perceptions also involve a set of regions that implement conceptual processing, which serve to bring online past experience to guide actions and give sensations meaning. This finding suggests that affective neuroscience must be fused with cognitive neuroscience to make progress on understanding the nature of affect and emotion. A third, and final insight, is that diversity in emotional phenomena, across individuals and societies, may be unpacked by considering how the conceptual system guides the implementation of allostasis in a manner that is tuned to the demands and opportunities of an individual’s ecological, social and developmental niche. As a consequence, the entry point for measurement of affective and emotional phenomena in neuroscience research will be enhanced by considering conceptual frameworks for affect and emotion within a given (cultural) context.

Biographical Notes:  

Maria Gendron, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Yale University. Dr. Gendron is a Social Psychologist by training. She completed her doctorate at Boston College in 2013 with Lisa Feldman Barrett, where she conducted research on emotion perception in laboratory studies, patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and in small-scale societies. Her research focused on the role of conceptual knowledge, anchored in language, in the perceptual representation of and inferences about emotional cues (facial movements, vocalizations). During her post-doctoral work, supported by a NIMH fellowship, Dr. Gendron expanded her training to affective neuroscience and its integration with cultural psychology. Ongoing work aims to integrate affective neuroscience approaches with the study of individual and cultural diversity in emotional phenomena, including through fieldwork in a small-scale societal contexts and in laboratory research in industrialized, globalized societies.

Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD, is a University Distinguished Professor of psychology at Northeastern University, with appointments at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital in psychiatry and radiology. Dr. Barrett’s research focuses on the nature of emotion from the perspectives of both psychology and neuroscience, and takes inspiration from anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics. Her lab takes an interdisciplinary approach, and incorporates methods from social, clinical, and personality psychology, psychophysiology, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, and visual cognition. Current projects focus on understanding the psychological construction of emotion (i.e., how basic affective and conceptual ingredients provide the recipes for emotional experiences), age- and disease-related changes in affective circuitry within the human brain, how language and context influence emotion perception, how affect influences vision, and sex differences in emotion. Dr. Barrett received a National Institutes of Health Director’s Pioneer Award for her research on emotion in the brain, and is an elected member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the Royal Society of Canada and has been named president-elect for the Association of Psychological Science.

Readings (* = required)

Adolphs, R. (2017). How should neuroscience study emotions? By distinguishing emotion states, concepts, and experiences. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience12(1), 24-31.

Atzil, S., Gao, W., Fradkin, I., & Barrett, L. F. (in press). Growing a social brain. Nature Human Behavior. [draft forthcoming, upon availability]

* Barrett, L. F. (2017). The theory of constructed emotion: an active inference account of interoception and categorization. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience12(11), 1833.

*Barrett, L. F. & Satpute, A. B. (2017). Historical pitfalls and new directions in the neuroscience of emotion. Neuroscience Letters. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.07.045

Brooks, J.A., Shablack, H., Gendron, M., Satpute, A.B., Parrish, M.J., & Lindquist, K.A. (2017). The role of language in the experience and perception of emotion: A neuroimaging meta-analysis. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 12, 169-183.Critchley, H. D., & Garfinkel, S. N. (2017). Interoception and emotion. Current opinion in psychology, 17, 7-14.

Kleckner, I. R., Zhang, J., Touroutoglou, A., Chanes, L., Xia, Chengie, Simmons, W. K., Quigley, K.S., Dickerson, B. C., & Barrett, L. F. (2017). Evidence for a large-scale brain system supporting allostasis and interoception in humans. Nature Human Behavior, 1,0069.

Ledoux, J. E., & Brown, R. (2017). A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America114(10), E2016-E2025.

Somerville, L. H. (2016). Emotional development in adolescence. In Handbook of Emotion, 4th Edition (Barrett, Lewis, & Haviland-Jones, Eds.).



Sonia Lupien, PhD

Time: Tuesday, June 18, 2:00–3:30 pm

Title: Stress & the Brain

Abstract: This presentation aims to provide an overview of stress and its impact on human brain and cognitive functions. We will first review the determinants of stress, its definition, as well as the distinction between acute and chronic stress. The brain regions that are rich in stress hormone receptors will be explored and from there, the impact of stress of cognitive functions will be covered. We will then turn our attention on the various factors that could influence stress perception and stress reactivity. Individual factors and societal factors that should be taken into account when studying the impact of stress on the brain will be examined.

Biographical Note: Sonia Lupien is interested in the effects of stress throughout life and has conducted studies in children and young adults. Her studies have shown that even children are vulnerable to the e ffects of stress, and some of them secrete high levels of stress hormones from 6 years old onwards. Her studies in young adults led her to demonstrate the acute and chronic effects of stress hormones on memory and emotional regulation. Finally, studies on elderly populations have shown the negative effects of chronic stress on the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory processes.

Among her new research projects, she is interested in the sex and gender differences in the reactivity to stress and in the effects on memory and emotion regulation. She developed the DeStress for Success program that aims at educating children and teenagers on stress and its impact on learning and memory. Her team is currently actively working to adapt the DeStress Program towards adults in workplace environments. She is also the director of the Centre for Studies on Human Stress that aims to educate the public about the effects of stress on the brain and body by using scientifically validated data.

Readings (* = required)

 Introduction to the biology of stress systems and cognition

*Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience10(6), 434.

Lupien, S. J., Ouellet-Morin, I., Herba, C. M., Juster, R., & McEwen, B. S. (2016). From vulnerability to neurotoxicity: A developmental approach to the effects of stress on the brain and behavior. In Epigenetics and neuroendocrinology (pp. 3-48). Springer, Cham.

Lupien, S. J., Ouellet‐Morin, I., Hupbach, A., Tu, M. T., Buss, C., Walker, D., … & McEwen, B. S. (2015). Beyond the stress concept: Allostatic load—A developmental biological and cognitive perspective. Developmental Psychopathology: Volume Two: Developmental Neuroscience, 578-628.



Sonia Lupien, PhD

Time: Tuesday, June 18, 3:30–5:00 pm

Title: Social Adversity

Abstract:

Biographical Note:

Sonia Lupien is interested in the effects of stress throughout life and has conducted studies in children and young adults. Her studies have shown that even children are vulnerable to the e ffects of stress, and some of them secrete high levels of stress hormones from 6 years old onwards. Her studies in young adults led her to demonstrate the acute and chronic effects of stress hormones on memory and emotional regulation. Finally, studies on elderly populations have shown the negative effects of chronic stress on the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory processes.

Among her new research projects, she is interested in the sex and gender differences in the reactivity to stress and in the effects on memory and emotion regulation. She developed the DeStress for Success program that aims at educating children and teenagers on stress and its impact on learning and memory. Her team is currently actively working to adapt the DeStress Program towards adults in workplace environments. She is also the director of the Centre for Studies on Human Stress that aims to educate the public about the effects of stress on the brain and body by using scientifically validated data.

Readings (* = required)

The effects of social status, gender, age, role strain, etc on stress mechanisms 

*Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and psychopathology13(3), 653-676.

*Lupien, S. J., King, S., Meaney, M. J., & McEwen, B. S. (2000). Child’s stress hormone levels correlate with mother’s socioeconomic status and depressive state. Biological psychiatry48(10), 976-980.

Lupien, S., Ouellet-Morin, I., Raymond, C., Lecaire, S., Durand, N., Wan, N., & Roy, D. C. (2017). Impact of parental depression or cancer on offspring’s cortisol levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology83, 86.

Cantave, C. Y., Langevin, S., Marin, M. F., Brendgen, M., Lupien, S., & Ouellet-Morin, I. (2019). Impact of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in young male adults: the mediating and moderating role of cortisol stress response and coping strategies. Psychoneuroendocrinology103, 41-48.

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 19, 2018



Jennifer Bartz, PhD

Time: Wednesday, June 19, 9:00–10:30 am

Title: Oxytocin & the Neuroscience of Affiliation

Abstract: The field of social neuroscience has led to important insights about the biological basis of several social psychological processes (e.g., cooperation, empathy, prejudice). To date, work has largely employed imaging techniques to identify the brain regions/circuits involved in social cognition and behavior. Another important but less studied question concerns the neurochemical bases of social psychological processes. Neuromodulators (e.g., serotonin, oxytocin) alter nerve impulse transmission and allow for neuronal communication; because they diffuse through large areas of the brain, neuromodulators can impact the activity of diverse populations of neurons and have fairly widespread effects on the brain’s inherent functioning. Ultimately, these signaling molecules are thought to set in motion processes that facilitate the organism’s ability to respond adaptively to the demands of the current context.

In this presentation, I will focus on the role of the hormone and neuromodulator oxytocin, which, over the last 15 years, has emerged as a key variable in the regulation of human social cognition and behavior. Although popularly dubbed the “love hormone” empirical work reveals that the social effects of oxytocin are often nuanced—sometimes facilitating prosocial cognition and behavior, but at other times, or for other individuals, producing null and even “anti-social” effects. In fact, such variability may offer clues about the more basic mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates human sociality. One hypothesis that will be discussed is that oxytocin may alter specific motivational and/or perceptual states that make social cues more salient. Appreciating oxytocin’s nuanced social effects is important for i) advancing our understanding of the neuroscience and psychology of affiliation, and ii) researchers considering oxytocin as a therapeutic for disorders marked by impaired social functioning.

Biographical Note: Professor Bartz is an international leader in the study of the biological bases of prosocial behaviour (e.g., cooperation, trust, empathy). Her research on the effects of the neurohormone oxytocin revealed its powerful role in promoting co-operation, empathy and affiliation, but also – for certain individuals in certain situations – contributing to insecure attachment, personality disorders, and even domestic violence.  Her award-winning work advances a nuanced understanding of the profound links between brain and social behaviour. She has published her research in such top-tier journals as PNAS, Psychological Science and Current Biology, as well as such top tier specialty journals as Biological Psychiatry, International Journal of Psychoneuroendocrinology and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Readings (* = required)

*Bartz, J. A., Zaki, J., Bolger, N., & Ochsner, K. N. (2011). Social effects of oxytocin in humans: context and person matter. Trends Cogn Sci, 15(7), 301-309. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2011.05.002

Carter, C. S. (1998). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23(8), 779-818, AND Insel, T. R., & Young, L. J. (2001). The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(2), 129-136. Two historical classics that raised attention about the role of oxytocin in attachment.

Carter, C. S. (2014). Oxytocin pathways and the evolution of human behavior.  Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 17-39. A thorough, far-reaching theoretical analysis of oxytocin and human behavior.

Heinrichs, M., von Dawans, B., & Domes, G. (2009). Oxytocin, vasopressin, and human social behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30(4), 548-557. A clearly written, relatively comprehensive review for readers who wish to expand their knowledge on oxytocin and affiliation in humans.

*Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U., & Fehr, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435(7042), 673-676. doi: 10.1038/nature03701

Landgraf, R., & Neumann, I. D. (2004). Vasopressin and oxytocin release within the brain: a dynamic concept of multiple and variable modes of neuropeptide communication. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 25(3-4), 150-176. A comprehensive review for readers who wish to expand their knowledge on oxytocin release within the brain.

Marlin, B. J., Mitre, M., D’Amour J, A., Chao, M. V., & Froemke, R. C. (2015). Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition. Nature, 520(7548), 499-504. doi: 10.1038/nature14402. An elegant illustration of the social salience hypothesis in non-human animals.

*Ross, H. E., & Young, L. J. (2009). Oxytocin and the neural mechanisms regulating social cognition and affiliative behavior. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 30(4), 534-547. A clearly written and relatively comprehensive review for readers who wish to expand their knowledge on oxytocin and affiliation in non-human animals.



Jorge Armony, PhD

Time: Wednesday, June 19, 11:00–12:30 pm

Title: The Influence of Context on Emotional Processing

Abstract: The ability to detect and decode others’ emotional expressions is essential for successful social interactions and, in certain cases, even for survival. Processing of these stimuli can often be achieved in an automatic fashion, even under suboptimal conditions (e.g., in the presence of noise or outside the focus of attention). Nonetheless, the evaluation of emotional stimuli can be strongly modulated by contextual factors. Here, I will present recent findings from our group and others exploring how context can influence the behavioral and neural processing of visual and acoustic emotional expressions, especially when they are ambiguous. Specifically, I will focus on how processing of these stimuli is affected by the presence of other emotional information, the relevance (actual or perceived) of the stimulus, as well as the relation between the emitter and receiver.

Biographical Note: Much of our current understanding of stress-related disorders – including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), phobias, panic attack, and generalized anxiety – comes from studying how the brain processes fear.

Jorge Armony, PhD conducts research on how the brain detects stimuli in the environment that may signal threat or danger, and how this mechanism interacts with other processes, such as consciousness, attention, and memory.

In his quest for answers, Jorge Armony uses several state-of-the-art research techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), behavioral and physiological measures (i.e. skin conductance and heart rate), as well as computational modeling.

Readings (* = required)

*Armony, J. L. (2013). Current Emotion Research in Behavioral Neuroscience: The Role(s) of the Amygdala. Emotion Review, 5(1), 104–115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073912457208

Grèzes, J., Adenis, M. S., Pouga, L., & Armony, J. L. (2013). Self-relevance modulates brain responses to angry body expressions. Cortex, 49(8), 2210-2220.

Lazerus, T., Ingbretsen, Z. A., Stolier, R. M., Freeman, J. B., & Cikara, M. (2016). Positivity bias in judging ingroup members’ emotional expressions. Emotion, 16(8), 1117-1125.

Molenberghs, P. (2013). The neuroscience of in-group bias. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1530-1536.


Carolyn Parkinson, PhD

Time: Wednesday, June 19, 2:00–3:30 pm, 3:30–5:00 pm

Title: To Be Announced / [ Social Networks ]

Abstract:

Biographical Note: Carolyn Parkinson, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, UCLA. I’m interested in how the human brain represents, navigates, and shapes its social environment. My research integrates theory and methods from social psychology with computational techniques that exploit the wealth of information contained in patterns of ties in real-world social networks and in distributed patterns of brain activity.

My current work is primarily concerned with better understanding the mental architecture involved in encoding the structure of our social networks, and the cognitive and behavioral consequences of this structure. By combining the systematic characterization of real-world social relationships with methods for assessing information processing within individual brains, this line of research aims to provide insight into interactions between social networks and human cognition.

Readings (* = required)

THURSDAY, JUNE 20, 2019



Tanya Luhrmann, PhD

Time: Thursday, June 20, 9:00–10:30 am

Title: The Voices of God and the Voices of Psychosis in the US, Ghana and India

Abstract: This talk examines the phenomenological features of voice-hearing among many different kinds of people. I draw from hundreds and hundreds of interviews with people who do, and do not, meet criteria for serious psychotic disorder and who have experiences of hearing voices, and from research that sought to train non-clinical subjects to have more sensory experiences of God. I found that specific practices—inner sense cultivation, or the practice of attending to inner sensory experience—increased the likeliness that people in the non-clinical population would report that they had a sensory or quasi sensory experience of God. I also found that local models of mind affected the frequency with which the nonclinical religious population reported hearing God’s auditory voice, and the content of voices heard by the clinical population. This suggested that perceptual experiences can be altered to some degree by culture.

Biographical Note: Tanya Marie Luhrmann is the Watkins University Professor in the Stanford Anthropology Department. Her work focuses on the edge of experience: on voices, visions, the world of the supernatural and the world of psychosis. She has done ethnography on the streets of Chicago with homeless and psychotic women, and worked with people who hear voices in Chennai, Accra and the South Bay. She has also done fieldwork with evangelical Christians who seek to hear God speak back, with Zoroastrians who set out to create a more mystical faith, and with people who practice magic. She uses a combination of ethnographic and experimental methods to understand the phenomenology of unusual sensory experiences, the way they are shaped by ideas about minds and persons, and what we can learn from this social shaping that can help us to help those whose voices are distressing.

She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003 and received a John Guggenheim Fellowship award in 2007.When God Talks Back was named a NYT Notable Book of the Year and a Kirkus Reviews Best Book of the Year. Her new book, Our Most Troubling Madness: Schizophrenia and Culture, will be published by the University of California Press in 2016.

Readings (* = required)

Luhrmann, T. M., Padmavati, R., Tharoor, H., & Osei, A. (2015). Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: interview-based study. The British Journal of Psychiatry206(1), 41-44.

Luhrmann, T. M. (2017). Diversity within the psychotic continuum. Schizophrenia Bulletin43(1), 27-31.

Luhrmann, T. M., Alderson-Day, B., Bell, V., Bless, J. J., Corlett, P., Hugdahl, K., … & Peters, E. (2019). Beyond trauma: a multiple pathways approach to auditory hallucinations in clinical and nonclinical populations. Schizophrenia Bulletin45(Supplement_1), S24-S31.



Tanya Luhrmann, PhD

Time: Thursday, June 20, 11:00 am–12:30 pm

Title: “Is the Shaman Schizophrenic, After All? How Religious Practice May Change Psychotic Experience”

Abstract: When anthropology was a young discipline, people smitten with the romance of cultural relativism argued that those who were diagnosed with schizophrenia in our society would simply be artists or shamans in another. When the biomedical model began to dominate psychiatry, it seemed clear that this romantic vision was a mistake. In recent decades, however, not only anthropologists but also psychiatrists have begun to wonder whether forms of cultural practice might alter the experience of even so profound an illness as schizophrenia in powerful ways. In this talk I present the best evidence for this possibility that I have yet encountered by examining a spirit possession practice in Ghana.

Biographical Note: Tanya Marie Luhrmann is the Watkins University Professor in the Stanford Anthropology Department. Her work focuses on the edge of experience: on voices, visions, the world of the supernatural and the world of psychosis. She has done ethnography on the streets of Chicago with homeless and psychotic women, and worked with people who hear voices in Chennai, Accra and the South Bay. She has also done fieldwork with evangelical Christians who seek to hear God speak back, with Zoroastrians who set out to create a more mystical faith, and with people who practice magic. She uses a combination of ethnographic and experimental methods to understand the phenomenology of unusual sensory experiences, the way they are shaped by ideas about minds and persons, and what we can learn from this social shaping that can help us to help those whose voices are distressing.

She was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003 and received a John Guggenheim Fellowship award in 2007.When God Talks Back was named a NYT Notable Book of the Year and a Kirkus Reviews Best Book of the Year. Her new book, Our Most Troubling Madness: Schizophrenia and Culture, will be published by the University of California Press in 2016.

Readings (* = required)

Luhrmann, T. M., Padmavati, R., Tharoor, H., & Osei, A. (2015). Differences in voice-hearing experiences of people with psychosis in the USA, India and Ghana: interview-based study. The British Journal of Psychiatry206(1), 41-44.

Luhrmann, T. M. (2017). Diversity within the psychotic continuum. Schizophrenia Bulletin43(1), 27-31.

Luhrmann, T. M., Alderson-Day, B., Bell, V., Bless, J. J., Corlett, P., Hugdahl, K., … & Peters, E. (2019). Beyond trauma: a multiple pathways approach to auditory hallucinations in clinical and nonclinical populations. Schizophrenia Bulletin45(Supplement_1), S24-S31.



Amir Raz, PhD

Time: Thursday, July 20, 2:00–3:30 pm

Title: Much Ado About Something: The Fascinating Story of Hypnosis and Placebo Science

Abstract: What’s the relationship between hypnosis and placebo?  After all, both seem to draw on top-down control fueled by expectation and suggestion.  Why do red placebos stimulate whereas blue placebos calm?  Why do more placebos work better than few?  And why do more expensive placebos work better than cheaper ones?  These are some of the key questions that often come to mind when we consider the slippery and counterintuitive field of symbolic thinking.  Research with the living human brain unravels some of the mysteries so key to the field of ‘hypnobo’ – hypnosis and placebo.

Biographical Note: Professor Amir Raz, Canada Research Chair in the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University, Canada, is a world leader in unlocking the brain substrates of attention and consciousness. Dr. Raz is Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology & Neurosurgery, and Psychology; Senior Investigator in the Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research of the Jewish General Hospital; and a member of the Montreal Neurological Institute. He heads both the Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory at McGill University and the Clinical Neuroscience and Applied Cognition Laboratory at the Institute for Community and Family Psychiatry. Former member of the McGill Board of Governors and Editor-in-Chief of a specialty peer-reviewed journal, Professor Raz combines cutting-edge science and trailblazing research with community outreach, science teaching, and interdisciplinary education in the health and psychological sciences. With peer-reviewed publications in journals such as Nature, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, The Lancet, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Professor Raz has received multiple accolades, ranging from a Young Investigator Award from the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression and the American Psychological Association’s Early Career Award, to Fellow of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and Honorary Fellow of the Golden Key Society. His research interests span the neural and psychological substrates of attention, suggestion, placebos, and self-regulation. A former magician and musician, he also conducts research into the cognitive neuroscience of deception, ownership, altered consciousness, and atypical cognition. Using imaging of the living human brain, genetics, and other techniques, his research brings together basic and clinical science.

Readings (* = required)

*Implications of Placebo and Nocebo Effects for Clinical Practice: Expert Consensus (2018)

Raz, A. (2007). Hypnobo: Perspectives on Hypnosis and Placebo. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 50(1), 29-36.

Terhune DB, Cleeremans A, Raz A, Lynn SJ. (2017). Hypnosis and Top-Down Regulation of Consciousness. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.

*Thibault, R. T., & Raz, A. (2017). The Psychology of Neurofeedback: Clinical Intervention even if Applied Placebo. American Psychologist72(7), 679–688. http://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000118

Thibault, R. T., Veissière S., Olson, J. A., Raz A. Treating ADHD with Suggestion: Neurofeedback and Placebo Therapeutics. Journal of Attention Disorders (in press)

Thibault, R. T., Lifshitz, M., & Raz, A. (2018). The climate of neurofeedback: Scientific rigour and the perils of ideology. Brain141(2), e11. http://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awx330



Michael Lifshitz, PhD

Time: Thursday, July 20, 3:30–5:00 pm

Title: The Neuroscience of Meditation and Hypnosis

Abstract: Hypnosis and meditation offer powerful tools for regulating subjective experience, attaining personal insight, and treating a range of clinical conditions. This talk will explore the current scientific understanding of these practices—outlining what we know about the underlying mechanisms and exploring emerging questions in the scientific literature. In particular, we will address the intersections of hypnosis and meditation, and discuss how these two research fields, with two distinct yet overlapping collections of practices, can enter into a productive dialog. For example, whereas research on meditation tends to emphasize the role of individual cognitive training and neuroplasticity, the science of hypnosis typically focuses on the importance of social suggestions, individual differences, and alterations in the sense of agency. We will discuss how integrating these complementary theoretical and methodological perspectives can lead to a more wholistic appreciation of the mechanisms of self-regulation.

Biographical Note: Michael Lifshitz, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Anthropology, Stanford University. I am interested in the plasticity of human consciousness. My research investigates practices that aim to transform subjective experience—from meditation and hypnosis to placebos, prayer, and contemplative therapies. I work from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining cognitive, neurobiological, and phenomenological approaches to shed light on mechanisms of self-regulation in both health and pathology.

I completed my PhD in neuroscience at McGill University and am currently working with Tanya M. Luhrmann as a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford. My work has been supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Bial Foundation, and the Mind & Life Institute. Before my doctorate, I completed a master’s in neuroscience and an undergraduate with honours in psychology and minors in philosophy and world religions, all at McGill.

Readings (* = required)

*Dahl, C. J., Lutz, A., & Davidson, R. J. (2015). Reconstructing and deconstructing the self: cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice. Trends in Cognitive Sciences19(9), 515-523.

Lifshitz, M. (2016). Contemplative experience in context: Hypnosis, meditation, and the transformation of consciousness. In A. Raz & M. Lifshitz (Eds.), Hypnosis and meditation: Towards an integrative science of conscious planes (pp. 3-16). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Lifshitz, M., & Thompson, E. (2019). What’s wrong with “the mindful brain”? Moving past a neurocentric view of meditation. In Casting Light on the Dark Side of Brain Imaging (pp. 123-128). Academic Press.

*Terhune, D. B., Cleeremans, A., Raz, A., & Lynn, S. J. (2017). Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews81, 59-74.

Van Dam, N. T., van Vugt, M. K., Vago, D. R., Schmalzl, L., Saron, C. D., Olendzki, A., … & Fox, K. C. (2018). Mind the hype: a critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspectives on Psychological Science13(1), 36-61.

FRIDAY, JUNE 21, 2019



Jeffrey Snodgrass, PhD

Time: Friday, June 21, 9:00–10:30 am

Title: Field Methods

Abstract: This session will present an overview of methods suitable for conducting field projects attentive to local social and cultural processes. Focus will be on the development of culturally-sensitive positive and negative subjective well-being scales, via specialized “cultural domain analysis” techniques drawn from cognitive anthropology, including free-lists, pile-sorts, and cultural consensus/consonance analysis. The session will examine how social and neuroscientific questions can be addressed by integrating such scales into projects alongside other methods, including ethnography/participant-observation, semi-structured interviews, field surveys, social network analysis, and biomarkers. Examples will be drawn from the session leader’s own research with the indigenous Sahariya “conservation refugees” of central India, and also with gamers playing in online virtual worlds. In those two contexts, emphasis will be on illuminating relationships between culture, stress, and the HPA axis, and especially on the role that culturally learned frames of meaning—sometimes called “cultural models,” which can be captured in well-constructed scale measures—play in regulating linked mental and physical well-being. In discussing those practical examples, issues related to both data collection and analysis will be raised, as well as the importance of careful study design, exploratory and confirmatory phases of research, mixing qualitative and quantitative methods, and working collaboratively with others.

Biographical Note: Jeffrey G. Snodgrass, PhD, Professor of Anthropology, Colorado State University, has conducted long-term ethnographic research in India on topics typically related to religion. He is currently investigating avatar therapeutics in ritual and play contexts from an integrative bio-psycho-cultural perspective, with ongoing projects in the U.S., France, India, and China. This research critically engages the movement for global mental health, empirically investigating the value of folk therapeutic alternatives and complements to current mainstream psychiatric approaches. He directs CSU’s Ethnographic Research and Teaching Laboratory (ERTL).

Readings (* = required)

*Snodgrass, J.G., Lacy, M.G. & Upadhyay, C. (2017) Developing Culturally Sensitive Affect Scales for Global Mental Health Research and Practice: Emotional Balance, Not Named Syndromes, in Indian Adivasi Subjective Well-Being. Social Science & Medicine 187: 174–183.

*Snodgrass, J.G., et al. (2017). Online Gaming Involvement and Its Positive and Negative Consequences: A Cognitive Anthropological ‘Cultural Consensus’ Approach to Psychiatric Measurement and Assessment.” Computers in Human Behavior 66 (2017): 291–302. [Supplementary material discusses the interview analysis informing the scales: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.025.]

Snodgrass, J.G., et al. (in prep). Addictive and Problematic Internet Gaming in North America, Europe, and China: Distinguishing Core from Peripheral Psychiatric Symptoms. Working manuscript.

Snodgrass, J.G., et al. (in prep).The Cross-Cultural Validity of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Comparative Study of North America, Europe, and China.

Snodgrass, J.G. (2014) Ethnography of Online Cultures. Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, 465–496.

Snodgrass, J.G. David Most, and Chakrapani Upadhyay. “Religious Ritual Is Good Medicine for Indigenous Indian Conservation Refugees:  Implications for Global Mental Health.” Current Anthropology 58, no. 2 (2017): 257–84.

Snodgrass, Jeffrey G., H. J. François Dengah II, Michael G. Lacy, Robert J. Else, Evan R. Polzer, Jesusa M. G. Arevalo, and Steven W. Cole. “Social Genomics of Healthy and Disordered Internet Gaming.” American Journal of Human Biology 0, no. 0 (n.d.): e23146. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23146.

Zahran, Sammy, Jeffrey G Snodgrass, David G Maranon, Chakrapani Upadhyay, Douglas A Granger, and Susan M Bailey. “Stress and Telomere Shortening among Central Indian Conservation Refugees.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 9 (2015): E928–E936.



Brandon Kohrt, MD, PhD

Time:   Friday, June 21, 11:00-12:30 pm

Title: Social and Cultural Neuroscience in Global Mental Health

Abstract: 

Biographical Note: Brandon Kohrt, MD, PhD, is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Charles and Sonia Akman Professor in Global Psychiatry, George Washington University.

As an internationally recognized global mental health expert, he works with populations affected by war-related trauma, torture, environmental disasters, and chronic stressor of poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to healthcare. Dr. Kohrt has worked in Nepal since 1996 and has been advisor to Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO) Nepal since 2006. He has collaborated with The Carter Center Mental Health Program in Liberia since 2010. He has investigated the mental health consequences of and designed interventions for child soldiers and earthquake survivors in Nepal. He collaborated on development of a Nepali school-based youth suicide prevention program. In Liberia, he designed programs to reduce stigma among youth and adults impacted by mental illness, political violence, and the Ebola virus outbreak, and co-designed a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program for police officers. He has collaborated on interventions for children with Nodding Syndrome in Uganda and children affected by HIV and political violence in Nigeria. In addition, he has worked in Uganda, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Mongolia, Haiti and India. Dr. Kohrt has published over 100 peer reviewed articles and book chapters. He co-edited the book Global Mental Health: Anthropological Perspectives, which was honored with the creative scholarship award of the Society for the Study of Psychiatry and Culture. He has received research funding from NIMH, Grand Challenges Canada, UNICEF, the Fulbright Program, HopeLab, and the Jacobs Foundation. His clinical work addresses cross-cultural psychiatry specializing in refugees and immigrant populations. He founded the Atlanta Asylum Network for Torture Survivors and consults on suicide prevention programs for Bhutanese Nepali refugees. Dr. Kohrt has developed a global mental health training program in Nepal for students in medicine, public health, and anthropology.

Readings (* = required)


Laurence Kirmayer, MD, FRCPC, FCAHS, FRSC, Ana Gomez-Carrillo, MD, Roberto Lewis-Fernández, MD, and Brandon Kohrt, MD, PhD

Time:   Friday, June 21, 2:00-3:30 pm

Title: The Place of Social & Cultural Neuroscience in Psychiatric Training

Abstract: Recently, curriculum have been proposed to promote the integration of neuroscience research in psychiatry theory, research and practice. This session will examine the specific role of social and cultural neurosience in these efforts and address some challenges that emerge including how to approach ethnocultural variation, social determinants of health, and the impact of social context on the course of illness.

Biographical Notes:

Laurence Kirmayer, MD, FPRCPC, FCAHS, FRSC is James McGill Professor and Director, Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University and Director of the McGill Global Mental Health Program. He is Editor-in-Chief of Transcultural Psychiatry, and Director of the Culture & Mental Health Research Unit at the Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, where he conducts research on culturally responsive mental health services, the mental health of Indigenous peoples, and the anthropology of psychiatry. He founded and directs the annual Summer Program and Advanced Study Institute in Cultural Psychiatry at McGill. He co-edited the volumes, Understanding Trauma: Integrating Biological, Clinical, and Cultural Perspectives (Cambridge University Press), Healing Traditions: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada (University of British Columbia Press), Cultural Consultation: Encountering the Other in Mental Health Care (Springer), DSM-5 Handbook for the Cultural Formulation Interview (APPI), and Re-Visioning Psychiatry: Cultural Phenomenology, Critical Neuroscience and Global Mental Health (Cambridge). He is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences and of the Royal Society of Canada (Academy of Social Sciences).

Ana Gómez-Carrillo, MD, is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Division of Social & Transcultural Psychiatry of McGill University. She obtained her medical degree from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) and recently completed a psychiatry residency and specialized training as a Cognitive Behavioural Therapist at the Charité University Hospital in Berlin (Germany). She spent the last two years working on an in-patient crisis and depression ward with perinatal mental health services, treating mood and somatoform disorders. During her fellowship, she is receiving subspecialty training in immigrant and refugee mental health. Dr. Gomez-Carrillo received funding from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) for her doctorate research on depression as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. She then spent two years researching the processing of emotions in the primary visual cortex at the Visual Perception Lab of the Charité University Hospital. Her current research focuses on cultural adaptation of psychological interventions and culturally responsive web-based mental health resources. Dr. Gomez-Carrillo also takes a special interest in the philosophy and anthropology of psychiatry, specifically how integrative frameworks guide clinical assessments and interventions. Her work seeks to delineate the intersubjective nature of the diagnostic process and clarify the use of metaphors in the creation of illness narratives and meaning co-construction.

Roberto Lewis-Fernández, MD,  is Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons and Director of the New York State (NYS) Center of Excellence for Cultural Competence and the Hispanic Treatment Program. Dr. Roberto Lewis-Fernández is Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons and Director of the New York State (NYS) Center of Excellence for Cultural Competence and the Hispanic Treatment Program, and Co-Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic, at NYS Psychiatric Institute. He is also Lecturer on Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard University.

Dr. Lewis-Fernández’s research focuses on developing clinical interventions and novel service-delivery approaches to help overcome disparities in the care of underserved cultural groups. His work centers on improving treatment engagement and retention in mental health and physical health care by persons with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and other serious mental illnesses. He also studies the way culture affects individuals’ experience of mental disorder and their help-seeking expectations, including how to explore this cultural variation during the psychiatric evaluation. He led the development of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview, a standardized method for cultural assessment for use in mental health practice, and the Principal Investigator of its international field trial, conducted in Canada, India, Kenya, the Netherlands, Peru, and the United States. Dr. Lewis-Fernández’s research has been funded by US federal and state agencies as well as private foundations. He has published over 170 articles, editorials, commentaries, reports, books, and book chapters on the topic of cultural mental health.

Brandon Kohrt, MD, PhD, is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Charles and Sonia Akman Professor in Global Psychiatry, George Washington University. As an internationally recognized global mental health expert, he works with populations affected by war-related trauma, torture, environmental disasters, and chronic stressor of poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to healthcare. Dr. Kohrt has worked in Nepal since 1996 and has been advisor to Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO) Nepal since 2006. He has collaborated with The Carter Center Mental Health Program in Liberia since 2010. He has investigated the mental health consequences of and designed interventions for child soldiers and earthquake survivors in Nepal. He collaborated on development of a Nepali school-based youth suicide prevention program. In Liberia, he designed programs to reduce stigma among youth and adults impacted by mental illness, political violence, and the Ebola virus outbreak, and co-designed a Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) program for police officers. He has collaborated on interventions for children with Nodding Syndrome in Uganda and children affected by HIV and political violence in Nigeria. In addition, he has worked in Uganda, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Mongolia, Haiti and India. Dr. Kohrt has published over 100 peer reviewed articles and book chapters. He co-edited the book Global Mental Health: Anthropological Perspectives, which was honored with the creative scholarship award of the Society for the Study of Psychiatry and Culture. He has received research funding from NIMH, Grand Challenges Canada, UNICEF, the Fulbright Program, HopeLab, and the Jacobs Foundation. His clinical work addresses cross-cultural psychiatry specializing in refugees and immigrant populations. He founded the Atlanta Asylum Network for Torture Survivors and consults on suicide prevention programs for Bhutanese Nepali refugees. Dr. Kohrt has developed a global mental health training program in Nepal for students in medicine, public health, and anthropology.

Readings (* = required)

Griffith, J. L. (2014). Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum. Academic Psychiatry38(2), 177-184.

Kirmayer, L. J., & Crafa, D. (2014). What kind of science for psychiatry?. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience8, 435.